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Category: Research
Written by Paula Escudeiro


On Portugal mainland there are 38 qualified ground water bottled types of which 19 are classified as natural mineral and 19 as spring waters. Portugal can be divided in two great geotechtonic areas (Figure 2). In the first area, located in northern Portugal, the occurrence and circulation of waters are controlled by deep faults, involving fluids coming from the depth. In the second area, located in central and southern Portugal, the mineral and spring waters are mostly influenced by rock dissolution processes.

The consumption of bottled water in Portugal is almost entirely composed by Natural Mineral Water or Spring Water and they are in general low mineralization waters, a fact that contrast with the majority of bottled waters sold in other European countries. The market has experienced sustained growth over the years and it has gained a prominent position on the market of non-alcoholic beverages



Category: Research
Written by Nuno Escudeiro

Characterization of some waters in Portugal:



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The Company Águas das Caldas de Penacova was formed in 1991 with the aim of exploiting the aquifer in Serra do Buçaco and it is now one of the leading companies in the domestic market.  It provides natural mineral water with a low mineral content. Given the value of the average annual temperature in the region (Tm = 13.9°C at the Buçaco weather station), the springs of Caldas de Penacova lie at the boundary between the thermal and non-thermal, with of temperatures at the spring discharge between 17°C and 19°C [6].


Águas do Vimeiro

In the west region of Portugal, near Maceira village, Vimeiro supplies Natural Mineral Water and Sparkling water, it is characterized by a total mineralization of 1112 mg/lL due to dissolution of the chlorides, sulphates and carbonates and presents an average temperature of 26 ºC  [9].


Águas de Monchique 

Natural mineral water of Monchique, collected in the Monchique mountain in the Algarve region, is characterized by a low salt content (hyposaline) and alkaline (pH 9,5). The temperature at which appears at the surface is around 32ºC, showing the depth of the aquifers [5, 11].


Caramulo - Unicer 

Caramulo is one of the best known brands of Portuguese still water, this water spring is located in a vast granite area protected from the mountains, where nature is particularly preserved. This natural mineral water is distinguished by its purity, lightness, freshness and its composition, often being considered a soft water with an acidic pH [7].


Vitalis - Unicer

Vitalis natural mineral water, collected at São Mamede mountain, was launched by Unicer in June 1985.  Vitalis is characterized as soft (hyposaline) water, whose level of total mineralization is 54 mg per liter which gives it an extraordinary lightness and a unique flavor[8].


Água das Pedras - Unicer 

The exploitation of Pedras Salgadas in the Trás-os-Montes region started in 1871, but has been known since Roman times. This is an hypersaline mineral water with gas, 100 percent natural, and with a constant composition [5, 10].



Incorporating potable water sources and use habits into surveys that improve surrogate exposure estimates for water contaminants: the case of bisphenol A

Category: Research
Written by Corina

Incorporating potable water sources and use habits into

surveys that improve surrogate exposure estimates for

water contaminants: the case of bisphenol A

Syam S. Andra and Konstantinos C. Makris


Human biomonitoring studies for water contaminants are often accompanied by surveys relying

solely on total drinking water consumption rates, thus, failing to account for specific water sources

(bottled and tap water) and use habits, such as water used for preparing cold/hot beverages (coffee,

tea, juice, etc.). Despite the extensive use of bisphenol A (BPA) in polycarbonate (PC)-based water

contact materials, rarely do BPA biomonitoring studies focus on various PC water uses and sources.

Better resolved water consumption rates could reduce the uncertainty associated with surrogate

daily BPA intake estimates using fine-tuned surveys. This approach provided a proof of concept on

inclusion of water consumption from various sources and uses into estimates of daily intake for

water contaminants like BPA found in water-contact materials. The next steps would be in

quantifying the extent of improvement in exposure assessment that adds value to refined survey


Syam S. Andra

Konstantinos C. Makris (corresponding author)

Water and Health Laboratory,

Cyprus International Institute for Environmental

and Public Health in association with Harvard

School of Public Health,

Cyprus University of Technology,

Irenes 95,

Limassol 3041,


E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Syam S. Andra

Harvard-Cyprus Program,

Department of Environmental Health,

Harvard School of Public Health,


MA 02115,


Key words | biomonitoring, bisphenol A, environmental epidemiology, exposure assessment,

polycarbonate bottled water, water and health

Results on the bottled water analysis in Crete Greece

Category: Research
Written by MANOLIS

Four different sets of analysis in samples from the Cretan market were conducted. Bottled water is very popular in Crete especially in the summer. Touristic activities include over 2 million visitors that tend to consum bottled water.

The parameters measured in the laboratory were chosen to be Total Coli, E. Coli, Pseudomonas spp. and TCC 22. Sixteen different brands were chosen from the market. Samples were taken in supermakets, stores, kiosks and form spots that was ready for consumption.


The laboratory used was 'Water and Wastewater Quality Control LAboratory' of DIALYNAS SA in Heraklion Crete.

Despite of the fact that in several occasions TCC were found, the water is safe in terms of TC, EC and Pseudomonas spp. (absence in the results).